Comprehensive Mobile Strategy Drives Competitive Advantage

Since the release of the first iPhone and App store in 2008, there has been an ongoing debate about the Open vs. Closed Web and which will ultimately win out.  Almost four years ago (August 2010) Wired published a view that “The Web is Dead”. Those in the Search marketing space joined with Google in taking the other side that the Open Web will prevail.  

We don’t view this in terms of binary winners, however, but rather a debate about the direction of user behavior and the resulting marketing and competitive implications.  The way we see it, the last four years have shown us that while the Open Web and Search continue to drive trial and customer acquisition (which is incredibly important), the Closed Web, and mobile apps specifically, is key to user dialogue, frequency and loyalty.  The winners will be the first to master both the Open and Closed Web. We see this already in Travel, where Online Travel Agents have demonstrated the keen ability to marry both sides of this mobile world for competitive advantage and to grow their share of e-commerce bookings.

In this post, we will examine both sides of the argument, but then show how they are really two sides of the same coin.

Apps Offer a Superlative User Experience

The following chart shows users prefer Apps. Apps offer a faster, simpler and personalized UX.  This utility increases for logged in users due to easy form filling, more relevant content and access to user data. 

The fantastic UX that apps can offer through convenience and reduction of service friction has launched a new category of App-based businesses: “On-demand mobile services”. When their apps are superlative, some of these new brands have become successful very quickly. Uber and HotelTonight are leading examples – so successful, in fact, that they can upend traditional Search for specific needs. This point of view is shared by Cathy Boyle, a senior mobile analyst at eMarketer, who says “Search engines are not necessarily the first place smartphone and tablet users turn. The explosion of mobile app development and usage means mobile users have more – and more specialized – alternatives for finding information.”  

At DMW, we believe that app design, technology, marketing, and data are becoming an important combined factor in certain M&A activities, including last week’s announcement that Priceline is buying OpenTable and last year's acquisition of Kayak.

Mobile Browsers Drive Convenience & Discoverability

Despite the better UX of apps and users’ preference for them, we see from this chart that mobile web traffic out-paces mobile app traffic 3:1.  

Mobile browser traffic vs. app traffic for top 50 mobile sites

Given what we know about the superiority of apps’ UX and users’ preference for this experience, this is surprising. What’s going on? Despite the better experience, users still have to search for, download, and go through first-use steps with apps. In many scenarios these initial hurdles are outweighed by the need for a more immediate experience or an experience that invests less in a given brand. 

This is all relatively common knowledge, of course, but is usually used to play one side of the Open vs. Closed argument or the other. DMW’s point of view, however, is that this is not a mutually exclusive (nor permanent) decision for users. We believe this 3:1 ratio to be a very clear demonstration of a typical agnostic / loyalist customer mix. The 3:1 traffic ratio implies an average 33% retention rate, which is reasonable. Our takeaway: Businesses most adept at leveraging both the open AND closed web will win.

Indexed Travel App Ratings

To help further understand opportunities for travel brands, DMW studied customer ratings of apps (in Google Play and Apple Store) and indexed OTAs (7), Metasearch sites (5) and Suppliers (9) against the entire group.  Our findings have further informed our “open + closed” strategy. The headline is that OTAs and Metas index at 105 and 104, while Suppliers index at 92.

OTAs' and Metas' mobile apps have much higher ratings than Suppliers' apps

Highlights - OTAs and Metas:
  • The Rating range for OTA and Meta is quite small indicating 1) inherent value through scope/choice and 2) e-commerce businesses: they get it (strategy, management, culture, resource allocation, etc.)
  • Scale Advantage -- In the travel vertical, users find much more utility with OTAs and Meta apps due to the scope of services offered versus hotel or flight only apps.  Not surprisingly, TripAdvisor, offering the most choice, content and reviews, is the download king with an estimated 100 million downloads
  • DMW Takeaway: How you market the App will also determine how quickly you can scale downloads.  There are organic (free) and paid (sponsored) methods that are emerging be best practices. 
  • DMW Takeaway #2: We expect PCLN to leverage the OPENTABLE app downloads with Kayak, Priceline and Booking apps to gain further scale advantages.  It will be interesting to watch this potential synergy unfold over the next few years.

Highlights - Suppliers:
  • Among the supplier brands, the range in index scores, from 77 to 109, is much greater than the OTAs and Metas.
Avg. user ratings vary widely within the Supplier set
  • Kudos to Starwood SPG for their 109 Index (4.3 stars) and the booby prize goes to Hyatt (77 Index, 3 stars).  
  • DMW Takeaway: The enormous variance in app ratings for hotel brands is due neither to the strength nor size of their loyalty programs. Example: Marriott ranks towards the bottom but has the largest loyalty program.  What drives better ratings is a combination of better strategy and resource allocation, along with the expertise to design, build and market a superior app experience.

Advice for Suppliers: Strategize for the Virtuous Cycle

Suppliers who are looking to get ahead must factor in the CPA of bookings made through apps vs through third parties: Bookings made through apps are akin to bookings from direct website visits in terms of margins – the CPA is very low (need to factor in install and app marketing costs, subject of future post).  Aggressive brands will understand that ROI calculations for an improved app experience must include these higher margins as guests channel shift (in reasonable numbers) from intermediaries to the direct channel.

In turn, the combination of great UX, scope, and scale is a power play that creates a virtuous cycle of more downloads, usage, and profits -- which fuels greater investment in the app platform and marketing.  This virtuous cycle quickly becomes a competitive advantage: you will find more frequent updates and improved UX with app winners such as and TripAdvisor.

What to Expect?

We expect this intermediary app advantage to enable further indirect e-commerce share gains over direct e-commerce.  OTAs and Metas will leverage these advantages to grow more traveler wallet share -- which will drive greater reach, downloads, investment in better updates and less hotel brand loyalty.   Unless the fragmented hotel industry (brands, owners, franchisees) starts allocating much more capital to this important area, they will continue to lose online revenue share.

Google has begun building a massive database of app pages and this will be very important going forward.  It will enable app marketers to leverage “pull marketing” through Google Search and “push marketing” through Google Now, Google Maps, and other Google apps.  The major OTAs and Metas are seeing their percent of traffic and bookings from Google decrease as a result.  The intermediaries’ traffic level from Google is down to 10-12% versus the hotel Brands with Google contributions over 20%.

What do you think about Mobile and App marketing?  Are we on the verge on of a new marketing frontier? DMW would love to hear your comments below.

By Jack Feuer -- Founder & President, Digital Marketing Works

How to Avoid Being Commoditized By Empowered Consumers

Consumers’ passion for and rapid adoption of technology presents both opportunities and risks for all businesses. As the time we spend with various screens reaches new highs (over 5.3 hours per day, eMarketer July 2013), the imperative to re-evaluate your marketing strategy and resource allocation intensifies. The largest risk is a drastic uptick in commoditization, especially if you are targeting or catering to the millennial generation. The opportunities include a social and mobile led retention strategy.

Even before the millennial generation, the winds of change, disruption, and consumer empowerment were underway.  Let’s take a look at the hospitality vertical and how empowered all consumers have become over the last 20 years.  Before 1996 (the year I started business school, referred to as BBS, before business school), planning a trip could include reading magazine, travel books, using your landline phone to dial a travel agent or call a travel provider directly (if you could find the number in the phone book). We had to book by using the travel agent, calling hotel directly or calling HRN (predecessor to  Since we had no idea if the price being quoted as the lowest, we tried to negotiate (some baby boomers still try to do this). We would use paper maps and stop frequently to ask directions. Word of mouth was in person – not very viral.

Around 1995, everything changed when the Internet was born. Netscape went public. Bezos drove cross-county and founded Amazon.  In 1996, Expedia (then part of Microsoft), and Travelocity were founded. launched a website to complement their 800# service. This was the beginning of empowerment. Consumers could log on to one site and view rates from my hotels in a market, view photos and book online. E-commerce was born.

Google started the year I graduated business school, 1998 – let’s call it ABS (after business school). This period is marked by the fast adoption of search and, later, comparison-shopping. This intent based, pull marketing changed marketing forever. Businesses who adopted search marketing gained a competitive advantage. Marketing accountability was born and I started DMW (Jan 2003). Consumers loved the immediate access to information and answers to their questions. Google quickly became a verb. TripAdvisor was founded in 2000 but really hit its stride during the next phase of empowerment. Compare the ABS to the BBS period – wow, what a difference. We could make better travel decisions while saving ourselves a ton of time.

The real period of empowerment began between 2004 when Facebook was founded and 2007 when Apple released the first iPhone.  Apple delighted consumers with an unbelievable user experience and ego-expressive design. TripAdvisor user reviews started to drive the choice of hotels along with rates and location. DMW began our user review optimization practice. Consumers became passionate about their smartphone – finally, an all-in-one device that was fast and really worked. The app community continued to fuel this passion by releasing great apps. Consumers were now in the driver seat. Twitter was founded in 2006. Next came the iPad in 2010. Mobile and social where building on themselves and consumers were more empowered than ever to make great travel decisions. By themselves. With their smartphone. They can share their experiences and opinions with friends and strangers. Meta-search on Kayak and recently TripAdvisor and Google further empowered users to compare hotels with real-time rates, availability, reviews, maps, etc.

Other important changes that lead to further empowerment included the growth of auctions for consumers and media buyers (Google, etc.), best rate guarantees, rate parity (or not), etc. With one click, consumers can sort results by price. All of this technology and change tilted the hotel buying process toward price, thus fueling commoditization. Disruption was all around with OTAs stealing share from each other and suppliers. Mobile apps and an intense focus on UX increased the scope (choice) advantages of the OTAs.

An important result of all this change is that Mobile app usage has become the new loyalty paradigm. Google is terrified of this as consumers can search their iWhatever and bring up their favorite app – bypassing Google search all together. When Google is under assault, so too is the competitive advantage that many of us established with search marketing. The "open" world of Google, browsers, and most websites (including mobile web) remain very relevant. Marketing winners, however, must continue to adapt. They must learn how to navigate the "closed" digital world, too: all iOS and Google Play Apps, as well as much of the social world (including Facebook). Understanding this “closed” universe and it’s relationship to the “open” Web is key to your next marketing strategy.

Millennials are defined as those born between 1980 and 2000, today 13 to 33 years old.  Their behaviors and needs are very different from the prior generations due, at least partly, to the new paradigms of mobile and social. They have grown up with technology and are extremely comfortable with it. Recent studies suggest they are open to learning, experimentation and are great sources of innovation. According to The New York Times, “Social media permeate the personal, academic, political and professional lives of millennials, helping to foster the type of environment where innovation flourishes. So when compared with older generations, millennials learn quickly — and that’s the most important driver of innovation.” These consumers are more transparent in their communication with peers (social media) and businesses (user reviews). This is very different behavior than baby-boomers, many of which are uncomfortable with change. In fact, compared with GenX and Baby Boomers, Millennials are open to personalization through data analysis and targeting.  Here are the results of an interesting study:

Unfortunately, due to these factors, Millennials also tend to be less loyal. But, they are open to trial and are a great acquisition opportunity.  Just make sure your user experience is optimized - both on property and via mobile devices.

Here are the key implications for marketers.
  • Understand your target audience. Whom do you need to reach and cater to achieve your business objectives.  Does your target include Millennials?  If so, adjust your market resource allocations appropriately.
  • Actively listen to your current customers and optimize their ratings and reviews.  This is foundational and will create marketing option value.
  • Increasingly move resources from offline to online. Rapid device proliferation and the empowered consumer dictate.
  • The Open and Closed web should be central to you marketing strategy. How do you win in a Web that is increasingly divided by open sites and closed app and networks?
  • Don't underestimate Social media.  How does social media feed your retention strategy? Acquisition strategy?  Mobile strategy? 
  • Be willing to cannibalize yourself....before you're cannibalized by a competitor or distributor.
  • Understand that customer experience is key to loyalty. Break down silos and collaborate with your peers in operations.
  • Really understand your metrics.  What’s your customer acquisition cost?  What’s your cost to retain a customer?  How do you drive increased frequency?  What’s your lifetime value of different user segments?
  • Use media and device attribution to measure and/or estimate return value (versus last-click measurement).  Ironically, digital marketing has become harder to finitely measure.  Learn to be comfortable with this and follow your customers.
Gotta wrap it up.  We are happy, however, to continue this conversation with you. Please comment below or contact DMW.

By Jack Feuer -- Founder & President, Digital Marketing Works